What is a mesenchymal stem cell?
A mesenchymal stem cell is a stem cell typically found in bone marrow but can be found in other sources of stem cells, such as cord blood. They may become differentiated into bone cells, cartilage cells, muscles cells, and fat cells.
What is the blood-brain barrier?
The blood-brain barrier protects the brain by preventing pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses, from passing from the blood stream into the brain and spinal cord. It is comprised of specialized endothelial cells, which are cells that line the inside surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels.
What are the benefits of using exosomes derived from placental stem cells?
These new, embryonic cells are as yet undifferentiated and can proliferate to become virtually any type of cell. Additionally, they are a “blank canvas” in terms of other types of factors native to every cell. Exosomes extracted from a healthy placenta should be free of potentially “dangerous” messages. They should:
- Not have the DNA of the contributing stem cell
- Not have the blood type of the mesenchymal stem cell
- Not cause inflammation (exosomes are, in fact, anti-inflammatory)
- Have an extremely low risk for rejection