Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is comprised of concentrated platelet cells from blood. Platelet cells contain and secrete various cytoplasmic granules, lysosomal content, microparticles, and secretomes. The three types of platelet secretomes include: alpha granules, dense granules, and lysosomal granules. These secretomes contain cytokines, chemokines, signaling molecules and growth factors. The alpha granules are primarily responsible for secreting the growth factors found in PRP:
- Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF)
- Insulin Growth Factor (IGF)
- Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)
- Transforming Growth Factor-ℬ (TGF- ℬ)
- Endothelial Growth Factor (EGF)
- Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF)
Platelet rich plasma (PRP) has a high concentration of growth factors that has shown in research studies to promote proliferation, differentiation, and migration of cells to the area including fibroblasts, epithelia, endothelial, and mesenchymal stem cells. As a result, PRP is involved in wound healing including hemostasis, angiogenesis (new formation of blood vessels), collagen synthesis, and revascularization of damaged tissue. Studies have also shown its association with chondrogenesis. Clinical studies have shown increased efficiency and efficacy with improved wound and tissue regeneration. PRP has also demonstrated its ability to be involved with the regulation and reduction of inflammation and thus, has been associated with pain modulation.